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12b. Detail of St. Andrew Showing Engraving Style in Julius Schiller, Coelum stellatum Christianum, 1627.

Most star-map engravings produce shading by using cross-hatching, or, as in Bayer's Uranometria, a stipple technique. Swelling the engraved line to produce shading is a much more uncommon style, since it requires great skill in wielding the burin, but it is particularly effective in rendering the folds of billowing draprey, and so quite suitable for depicting constellation figures.